Automated Design Environment for Custom Turbo Machinery
–Automated Design of Centrifugal Compressors Using Parametric Design–
There are laws of similarity (affinity laws) regarding the design of turbo machinery, and in theory, it is possible to implement automated machine designs. In this paper, we present an automated design environment that was developed for centrifugal compressors manufactured and sold by Elliott Group. First, we developed a basic design calculation program that automatically incorporates each customer’s requirements into the design specifications. Next, in the detailed design stage, we sorted and classified all components into two types. One type consisted of “standard parts” and the other type consisted of “customized parts,” which were designed specifically to meet each customer’s requirements. In addition, we had applied a Parametric Design process for feature- and parametric-modeling 3D-CAD. We took advantage of CAD associativity so that the 3D data and 2D drawing data were always correlated. This design approach of placing all of the design information into the 3D models to be the center of the design is called a “model-centric” approach.
This newly developed automated design environment has been successful in reducing the design time by 70% in comparison with the previous design method. The 3D design information is also used for the manufacturing process, resulting in improved product quality and manufacturing efficiency.
Design automation, 3D-CAD, PLM, Centrifugal compressor, Parametric design
Treatment of Palm Oil Mill Effluent by Closed Endless Stream Anaerobic Digesters
A full-scale plant with two parallel 12 000 m3 closed endless stream anaerobic digesters was installed at a palm oil mill in Perak, Malaysia. The digesters treat palm oil mill effluent (POME). The designed flow of palm oil mill effluent (POME) is 1 270 m3/d, and a chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) volumetric loading rate is 4.0 kg/(m3·d) under mesophilic conditions (35 ℃). Two fluidity investigations were conducted before the start of operation. Based on the results, the sludge fluidity was deemed sufficient for the digester. During the first reactor start-up, the CODCr volumetric loading rate of 3.9 kg/(m3·d) was achieved on the 28th day. After startup of both reactors and introduced all POME, with the CODCr volumetric loading rate of 2.9 kg/(m3·d), The CODCr removal rate was 87.9 to 91.5 % (average 89.2 %), and the CH4 concentration in the biogas was 60.1 to 60.3 % (average 60.3 %). The methane gas volume relative to removed CODCr was 0.306 to 0.453 m3/kg-CODCr removed (average 0.357 m3/kg-CODCr removed, NTP), which is almost the same as the theoretical value (0.35 m3/kg-CODCr removed, NTP). Thus almost all removed CODCr was supposed to be recovered as methane.
Palm oil mill effluent (POME), Anaerobic digester, Start-up, Mesophilic, Endless stream, Full-scale plant
High-Efficiency Centrifugal Chiller Model RTBA using Low-GWP Refrigerant R1224yd (Z)
Refrigeration and air-conditioning equipment are essential for modern life. HFC refrigerants used in such equipment are already subject to production regulations all around the world to reduce global warming. Therefore, it is necessary to replace HFC refrigerants with low Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerants. EBARA Refrigeration Equipment & Systems developed a new centrifugal chiller model RTBA and released it in April 2018. This model uses R1224yd (Z) (AMOLEA® 1224yd), a low GWP refrigerant for centrifugal chillers, which ensures the same level of both safety and security as conventional refrigerants and complies with all the essential needs for refrigerants. Since the model RTBA not only uses a low GWP refrigerant but is also highly efficient and reliable, it is an ideal product for customers seeking a safe, reliable, and easy-to-use chiller that reduces the environmental impact. In addition, we are developing a retrofit service to allow the use of R1224yd (Z) refrigerant in previously delivered centrifugal chillers by replacing some parts.
Centrifugal chiller, Model RTBA, Low GWP refrigerant, HFO, R1224yd (Z), Non-flammable, Toxicity, Kigari amendment, Retrofit